Thyroid:the largest of the endocrine glands ,
located in ht e neck. It has two oval parts called the lateral lobes, one
on either side of the voice box. A narrow band called the isthmus
connects these two lobes. The gland is enclosed by a connective tissue
capsule. This gland produces the hormonethyroxin.
The main function of thyroxine is to regulate metabolism for the production
of heat and energy in the body tissues. In order that this hormone
may be manufactured, there must be an adequate supply of iodine in the
blood. The iodine content may be maintained by eating vegetables
grown in iodine containing soils, or by eating sea foods, and the use of
A deficiency of iodine in the blood is the formation of a goiter
, which is a swelling of the neck due to an enlarged thyroid, but there
may other cause for goiter as well.
Simple goiter: Known also as endemic
goiter , the thyroid becomes enlarged simply because it must
work overtime to compensate for the lack of iodine. This is
some times common in adolescent girls, because of the particularly heavy
stresses imposed upon the thyroid by the body at puberty, but it usually
disappears in time.
Adenomatous goiter or nodular goiter: this type
of goiter has an accompanying tumor formation which comes about through
the overgrowth of the cells of the thyroid tissue. In nodular goiter
the tumor formation may be single or multiple.
For various reasons the thyroid gland may become either underachieve;
known as Hypothyroidism, or overactive known as Hyperthyroidism.
Hypothyroidism: shows up as two characteristic states;
1.) Cretinism, a condition in which there is a
serious lack of thyroid activity from the beginning of the individual’s
life. It is sometimes due to the complete absence or lack of thyroid
tissue. The infant becomes dwarfed ( an abnormally undersized person
)and mentally deficient because of failure of physical growth and mental
development. Only if continuous thyroid replacement is begun early
on is there any hope of altering the outlook.
2.) Myxedema, the result of atrophy (wasting away
) of the thyroid in the adult. The patient becomes sluggish both
mentally and physically. The skin and the hair become dry, and there
develops a peculiar swelling of the tissues of the face. Since thyroid
extract or the hormone itself may be administered by mouth, the patient
suffering from myxedema can be restored to health very easily, though treatment
must be maintained throughout the reminder of their life.
Hyperthyroidism: overacted thyroid, is the opposite
of hypothyroidism. The development of a simple goiter might suggest
hyperthyroidism, but there is a difference, in simple goiter the thyroid
is usually normal, but enlarges because it has more work to do, just as
the heart will enlarge if something causes it to increase it’s work load.
Hyperthyroidism, however, is an abnormal activity of the thyroid without
an accompanying need of it by any other part of the body. A common
form of hyperthyroidism is exophthalmic or Graves’ disease,
in which there is a goiter, bulging of the eyes, a strained appearance
of the face, intense nervousness, weight loss, a rapid pulse, sweating
and a tremor. Metabolism is stepped up to a terrific rate; it would
seem that the patient had a fire raging within him. In many
cases the administration of drugs, or surgical removal of a part of the
thyroid gland, will remedy the condition. Graves’ disease is usually triggered
by autoimmune disorder.
Parathyroid glands: Behind the thyroid gland, and
embedded in its capsule, are four tiny epithelial bodies called the parathyroid
glands. The hormone produced by these glands regulates the amount
of calcium dissolved in the circulating blood. If these glands are
removed, there will follow a series of muscle contractions involving particularly
the hand and the face muscles. These spasms are due to a low concentration
of blood calcium, and the condition is called tetany , do
not confuse it with the infection called tetanus ( lockjaw ).
Parathormone: It is a condition in which there
is an excess production of the secretion of these glands, as may happen
in tumors of the parathyroids, calcium – which is normally stored in the
bones for use by the tissues as needed, it is removed from its storage
place and is poured into the blood stream, whence it finally is excreted
by the kidneys. Because of the outpouring of calcium from the bones,
they become soft and easily bent. It is believed that the excess
of calcium in the blood is one cause of kidney stones.
Appearance of swelling to face
Slower mental processes
Drowsiness or lethargy
Slow heart rate
Sensitivity to cold
Tingling and or numbness to hands
Weight loss ( with increased appetite )
High blood pressure
Increase heart rate
Development of a goiter
Bulging of the eyes
Thyroiditis: swollen thyroid
Pain in the thyroid gland
Thyroid feels touchy and tender
Pain when swallowing and or turning your head
May feel this symptoms when the patient has the flu and or a viral
Thyroiditis – Generally does not require medical treatment, but
if pain is associated with swelling, your doctor may prescribe prednisone
therapy, or aspirin
Hypothyroidism – Thyroid replacement therapy
Hyperthyroidism – Antithyroid therapy
For hyperthyroidism caused by toxic adenomas, surgery may be
required to remove the tissue
Thyroid hormone production can be halted or suppressed, with a radioactive
If you experience agitation, rapid pulse, fever and delirious, * Call
your doctor and or seek Medical treatment Promptly.
If you experience drowsiness and lethargic with a feeling of intense
chill or feeling cold, * Call your doctor and or seek Medical