Acute pyelonephritis or kidney infection: 
One of the most common renal diseases.  Pyelonephritis most commonly
results from an ascending infection.  The most common infecting organism
is Escherichia coli.  Others are Proteus, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus
aureus, and Streptococcus faecalis.  It primarily affects the interstitial
area and the renal pelvis and, less often, the renal tubules.  Risk
factors can include diagnostic and therapeutic use of instruments, as in
catheterization, cystoscopy, or urologic surgery.  Inability to empty
the bladder, urine stasis (stoppage), urinary obstruction from tumors,
strictures, or benign prostatic hypertrophy can also lead to pyelonephritis. 
Other risk factors includes; sexual activity in women (intercourse increases
the risk of bacterial contamination), pregnancy – approx. 5% of pregnant
women develop asymptomatic bacteriuria, if left untreated, about 40% 
develop pyelonephritis.  diabetes are also prone to develop pyelonephritis
(glycosuria may support bacterial growth in the urine) 


Urinary urgency

urinary frequency

Burning during urination

Dysuria (difficulty and or painful urination)

Nocturia (excessive urination at night)

Hematuria (blood in the urine) usually microscopic but possibly gross

Possible cloudy urine

urine may have a foul smell – fishy odor

Fever of 102 degrees or higher

Chills, shaking chills

Flank pain




Antibiotic therapy for specific infecting organism.

If the infecting organism can’t be identified, treatment consist of
a broad – spectrum antibiotic.