Nephrotic Syndrome

Nephrotic Syndrome:  this disorder is characterized
by marked proteinuria, hypoalbuminemia, hyperlipidemia, and edema. 
Although nephrotic syndrome (NS) is not a disease itself, it results from
a specific glomerular defect and indicates renal damage.

Cause:  Primary (idiopathic) glomerulonephritis causes 75%
of the cases (affecting adults and children).  Other causes include
metabolic diseases such as diabetes mellitus; collagen vascular disorders,
such as systemic lupus erythematosus and periarteritis nodosa; circulatory
diseases, such as CHF, sickle cell anemia, and renal vein thrombosis; nephrotoxins,
such as mercury, gold, and bismuth; allergic reactions, and infections,
such as tuberculosis and enteritis.

Pregnancy, hereditary nephritis, multiple myeloma, and other neoplastic
diseases may also cause NS.


Mild to severe dependent edema of the ankles or sacrum, or periorbital
edema, (especially in children). 

Symptoms may lead to  ascites, pleural effusion, and swollen external

May show signs of  orthostatic hypotension, lethargy, anorexia,
depression, and pallor.


The goal is to correct the underlying cause (if possible)

Supportive treatment consists of protein replacement with a nutritional
diet of 1.5 protein/kg of body weight and restricted sodium intake.

Diuretics for edema

Antibiotics for infection

Possible corticosteroid therapy