Systemic Lupus Erythematosus:  A chronic inflammatory
disorder of the connective tissue, it affects multiple organ systems ,
as well as the skin and can be fatal.  It’s characterized by recurring
remissions and exacerbation.  Exacerbation’s are especially common
during the spring and summer.  Early detection and treatment is essential
and prognosis improves, but patients may develop cardiovascular, renal
or neurologic complications or severe bacterial infections.  This
disorder strikes women more than men.

Cause:  Studies shows that it is interrelated immunologic,
environmental, hormonal, and genetic factors as  possible causes. 
Risk factors may be due to viral infections, exposure to sunlight or ultraviolet
light, immunization, pregnancy,  abnormal estrogen metabolism., stress,
streptococcal or viral infections, and may include genetic predisposition.


Facial erythema (butterfly rash)


Nonerosive arthritis

Discord rash

Oral or nasopharyngeal ulceration





Patchy alopecia




Low grade fever



Weight loss

Lymp node enlargement

Abdominal pain

Nausea and or Vomiting

Diarrhea or constipation

Irregular menstrual periods


For mild symptoms:  Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, 
Topical treatment for skin lesions.

Refractory skin lesions are treated with intralesional corticosteroids
or antimalarials, such as hydroxychloroquine and chloroquine..  These
type of medications can cause retinal damage, such treatment requires ophthalmologic
examination every 6 months.



Discoid Lupus Erythematosus: 
is a form of lupus erythematosus marked by chronic skin eruptions that,
if untreated, can lead to scarring and permanent disfigurement.  About
1 out of 20 patients with discoid lupus erythematosus later develops systemic
lupus erythematosus. 

Cause:  The exact cause is unknown,
evidence suggest an autoimmune defect.


Lesions are red, raised, scaling plaques, with
follicular plugging and central atrophy.  The raised edges and sunken
centers give them a coin like appearance.  Lesions can appear anywhere
on the body, they usually erupt on the face, scalp, ears, neck, and arms
or on any part of the body that’s exposed to sunlight..

Hair may become brittle or may fall out in patches.


Tropical intralesional, or systemic medication

Avoid prolonged exposure to sun, fluorescent
lighting, or reflected sunlight.