Bronchiectasis: An irreversible condition
marked by chronic abnormal dilation of bronchi and destruction of bronchial
walls, this disorder can occur throughout the tracheobronchial tree or
can be confined to one segment or lobe. It is usually bilateral,
involving the basilar segments of the lower lobes. Bronchiectasis
has three forms: Cylindrical (fusiform), varicose, and saccular (cystic).
It affects people of both sexes and all ages.
Bronchus: one of the larger passages conveying air to (right
or left principal bronchus) and within the lungs (lobar and segmental bronchi)
Cause: Bronchiectasis results from conditions associated
with repeated damage to bronchial walls and abnormal mucociliary clearance,
which cause a breakdown of supporting tissue adjacent to airways.
Mucoviscidosis (cystic fibrosis of the pancreas)
Recurrent, inadequately treated bacterial respiratory tract infections
Measles, pneumonia, pertussis, or influenza
Obstruction (by a foreign body, tumor, or stenosis) associated
with recurrent infection
Inhalation of corrosive gas or repeated aspiration of gastric juices
into the lungs
May start off with no symptoms at all (asymptomatic)
Chronic cough that produces copious, foul-smelling, mucopurulent (pus)
Coarse crackles during inspiration over involved lobes or segments
Dyspnea (difficulty breathing)
Other signs of infections
Postural drainage and chest percussion
Bronchoscopy may be used occasionally to aid mobilization of secretions.
Oxygen therapy for patient with hypoxemia
Severe hemoptysis commonly requires lobectomy or segmental resection
* To help prevent this disease, vigorously treat bacterial pneumonia.
* Immunization to prevent childhood diseases